Gender difference in mortality among pulmonary tuberculosis HIV co-infected adults aged 15-49 years in Kenya
Authors & affiliation
Rose Jepchumba Kosgei, Steven Callens, Peter Gichangi, Marleen Temmerman, Anne-Beatrice Kihara, Gathara David, Eunice Nyaboe Omesa, Enos Masini, E. Jane Carter
Setting Kenya, 2012-2015 Objective To explore whether there is a gender difference in all-cause mortality among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)/ HIV co-infected patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) between 2012 and 2015 in Kenya. Design Retrospective cohort of 9,026 smear-positive patients aged 15-49 years. All-cause mortality during TB treatment was the outcome of interest. Time to start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was considered as a proxy for CD4 cell count. Those who took long to start of ART were assumed to have high CD4 cell count. Results Of the 9,026 observations analysed, 4,567(51%) and 4,459(49%) were women and men, respectively. Overall, out of the 9,026 patients, 8,154 (90%) had their treatment outcome as cured, the mean age in years (SD) was 33.3(7.5) and the mean body mass index (SD) was 18.2(3.4). Men were older (30% men' vs 17% women in those >= 40 years, p = <0.001) and had a lower BMI <18.5 (55.3% men vs 50.6% women, p = <0.001). Men tested later for HIV: 29% (1,317/4,567) of women HIV tested more than 3 months prior to TB treatment, as compared to 20% (912/4,459) men (p<0.001). Mortality was higher in men 11% (471/4,459) compared to women 9% (401/4,567, p = 0.004). There was a 17% reduction in the risk of death among women (adjusted HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.96; p = 0.013). Survival varied by age-groups, with women having significantly better survival than men, in the age-groups 40 years and over (log-rank p = 0.006). Conclusion Women with sputum positive PTB/HIV co-infection have a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality during TB treatment compared to men. Men were older, had lower BMI and tested later for HIV than women.
Peter Gichangi2016 Addressing the intersection between alcohol consumption and antiretroviral treatment : needs assessment and design of interventions for primary healthcare workers, the Western Cape, South Africa