Prevalence and genotype-specific distribution of human papillomavirus in Burundi according to HIV status and urban or rural residence and its implications for control
Authors & affiliation
Zacharie Ndizeye, Davy Vanden Broeck, Ramokone Lisbeth Lebelo, Johannes Bogers, Ina Benoy, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
Background Human papillomaviruses are the most important causative agents for invasive cervical cancer development. HPV type-specific vaccination and HPV cervical cancer screening methods are being widely recommended to control the disease but the epidemiology of the circulating HPV types may vary locally. The circulating HPV-strains have never been assessed in Burundi. This study determined the prevalence and genotype-specific distribution of HPV in four different strata in Burundi: HIV-infected or non-infected and women living in rural or urban areas. Implications for HPV diagnosis and vaccine implementation was discussed. Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Burundi (2013 in a rural area and 2016 in urban area) among HIV-infected and uninfected women living in rural and urban areas. Liquid-Based Cytology (LBC) and HPV genotyping were performed and risk factors for HPV infection and cervical pre-cancer lesions were determined using logistic regression model. Results HPV prevalence was very high in urban area with significant differences between HIV-positive and negative women (p<0.0001). In fact, 45.7% of HIV-positive participants were infected with any HPV type and all were infected with at least one HR/pHR-HPV type. Among the HIV-negative participants, 13.4% were HPV-infected, of whom, only four women (2.7%) were infected with HR/pHR-HPV types. In rural area, HPV infection did not significantly differ between HIV-positive and negative women (30.0% and 31.3% respectively; p = 0.80). In urban area, multiple infections with HR/pHR-HPV types were detected in 13.9% and 2.7% among HIV-positive and negative women respectively (p<0.0001), whereas in rural area, multiple infections with HR/pHR-HPV types were detected in 4.7% and 3.3% of HIV-positive and negative women respectively (p = 0.56). The most prevalent HR/pHR-HPV types in HIV-positive women living in urban area were HPV 52, 51, 56, 18 and 16 types. In HIV-negative women living in urban area, the most prevalent HR/pHR-HPV types were HPV 66, 67, 18, 45 and 39 types. In HIV-positive women living in rural area, the most prevalent HR/pHR-HPV types were HPV 66, 16, 18 and 33 types. In HIV-negative women living in rural area, the most prevalent HR/pHR-HPV types were HPV 16, 66, 18, 35 and 45 types. Independent risk factors associated with cervical lesions were HPV and HIV infections. Conclusions There is a high burden of HR and pHR-HPV infections, in particular among HIV-infected women living in urban area. The study points out the need to introduce a comprehensive cervical cancer control programme adapted to the context. This study shows that the nona-valent vaccine covers most of the HR/pHR-HPV infections in rural and urban areas among HIV-infected and uninfected women.
Stanley Luchters2018 Knowledge and practices of general practitioners at district hospitals towards cervical cancer prevention in Burundi, 2015 : a cross-sectional study
Heleen Vermandere2016 Epidemiology of HPV genotypes among HIV positive women in Kenya : a systematic review and meta-analysis